In this blog we will learn a very interesting topic of English Grammar i.e. CONJUNCTIONS.
Let’s begin with some examples:
In 1 and 2 we can see the conjunctions join together two sentences.
In 3 we can see the conjunctions join together two words only.
So by this we can say that, A Conjunction is a word which merely joins together two sentences and sometimes words.
Or we can say, it is word which joins two sentences, words or phrases with each other in a professional way.
As a part of speech, Conjunctions are important in conveying the whole thought of the spoken or written language. The importance of conjunctions lies in the fact that they make any sentence sensible and comprehensible.
It is very important that Conjunctions must be carefully distinguished from Relative Pronouns, Relative Adverbs, and Prepositions, which are also connecting words.
In sentence 1, we can see that the Relative Pronoun that refers to the noun house and also joins the two parts of the sentence.
In sentence 2, we can see that the Relative Adverb where modifies the verb was murdered and also joins the two parts of the sentence.
In sentence 3, we can see that the Conjunctions and simply joins the two parts of the sentence, it does no other work.
Conjunctions are known as connective or linking words. They join thoughts, actions and ideas, as well as clauses and phrases. Each of the three different types of conjunctions joins different parts of a sentence together. The main job of a conjunction is to link together different parts of a sentence to help you connect or emphasize ideas or actions. Conjunctions help you form more complex and interesting sentences and make your writing flow more smoothly.
Now, as we are aware about Conjunctions let’s move forward and have a look to Types of Conjunctions:
The chief Coordinating Conjunctions are: And, but, for, or, nor, also, either……or, neither……nor.
It joins, word + word; phrase + phrase; clause + clause.
Coordinating Conjunctions are further divided into 4 kinds:
It joins Main clause + Subordinate clause or Subordinate clause + Main clause.
A main clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A main clause can stand alone as a sentence because it can give complete meaning. On the other hand, the subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence, as it does not give complete meaning. It depends on main clause to give complete meaning.
Usually Subordinating Conjunctions are classified according to their meanings as follows;
Many things have happened since I saw you.
Some Conjunctions are used in pairs; such as,
As, we are clear about the types of conjunctions, let us have a look to some of the Conjunctions and their uses which will help us to learn them easily.
Note: Since, when used as a Conjunction in this sense, should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense, and followed by a verb in the simple past tense.
Note: there may be several alternatives each joined to the preceding one by or, presenting a choice between any two in the series.
Note: it is also used to express wish or surprise. For example:
That is used in 3 different ways:
Note:- In today’s time that is rarely used for reason or purpose.
As, we are now clear with the major topics of conjunctions, now let’s move forward and have a look to some of the rules of conjunctions which will help us to prepare and learn in a systematic and easy manner.
Rule no 1: ‘Until’ is time oriented and ‘Unless’ is action oriented. Both of these are negative words. So, not, never and no cannot be used with the clause containing these words.
For example: Wait for me in the parking until I return.
Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.
Rule no 2:- In an affirmative sentences doubt and doubtful are followed by if/ whether. On the other hand, in a negative or an interrogative sentence, doubt and doubtful are followed by that.
For example: I doubt if she will participate in the dance competition.
I do not doubt that she will participate in the dance competition.
Rule no 3: If two subjects are joined by ‘Either-Or’, ‘Neither-Nor’, the verb agrees with the subject that is near.
For example: Either Ramesh or I am ready to do this work.
Rule no 4:- The phrase “seldom or ever” is meaningless. We should say “seldom or never”.
For example: Such goods are made for export, and are seldom or never used in this country.
Rule no 5: Directly should not be used as a conjunction where as soon as would in every way be better.
For example: As soon as (not directly) the session of 1999 commenced, the government was pressed to do something for the unemployed.
Note: According to Fowler, “the conjunctional use of directly is quite defensible, but is chiefly colloquial”.
Rule no 6: Lest is a negative word and is always followed either by should or first form of the verb. Remember, the words (not, no, never) cannot be used with lest.
For Example: Dance carefully lest she should fall.
Dance carefully lest she falls.
Note: ‘Lest’ is rare in modern English. The modern idiomatic construction after ‘lest’ is ‘should’. (As mentioned in the rule)
Rule no 7: Scarcely should be followed by ‘when’, and not by ‘then’.
For example: Scarcely had he gone, when (not than) a policeman knocked at the door.
Rule no 8: When conjunctions are used as correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words that is to be connected.
For example: He not only visited Agra, but also Delhi.