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In this blog we will discuss important topic of English Grammar i.e. ADVERB.

ADVERB, is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an Adverb. Example:

  • Ram runs quickly.
  • This is very sweet mango.

In the first sentence we can see that quickly shows how or in what manner ram runs: quickly modifies the Verb runs.

In the second sentence we can see that quite shows how far or in what degree the mango is sweet; quite modifies the adverb clearly.

We need to keep in mind that the adverb standing at the beginning of sentences sometimes modify the whole sentences rather than any particular word. Such as,

  • Probably he is mistaken.
  • Possibly it is as you say.
  • Evidently the figures are incorrect.

Kinds of Adverbs:

There are basically 5 main kinds of adverb in the English language namely that of Manner, Time, Place, Frequency and Degree.

Let’s understand each with a brief description along with example sentences using each type of adverb.

ADVERBS OF TIME:

An adverb of time provides more information about when a verb takes place. They are usually placed at the beginning or end of a sentence. We put it in the start of a sentence, when it is particular importance to express the moment something happened.

Example: never, lately, always, recently, during, yet, soon, sometimes, usually, so far.

  • He never comes on time.
  • I haven’t been going to the party lately.
  • We recently bought a new car.

ADVERBS OF PLACE:

An adverb of place usually illustrates where the verb is happening. A adverb of place is usually placed after the main part or object, or at the end of the sentence.

Example: here, there, everywhere, away, inside, out, within, into.

  • Stand here.         Go there.
  • The little lamb followed Mary everywhere.
  • My brother is out.

ADVERBS OFMANNERS:

It is probably the most common of all adverbs and they are very easy to spot too. Adverb of manner provide more information about how or in what manner the verb is done. Most of the adverbs usually end in –ly.

Examples: clearly, soundly, sadly, bravely, hard, well, lazily.

  • Govind reads clearly.
  • Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
  • The boy works hard.

ADVERBS OF DEGREE:

Adverb of degree or we can say quantity explain the level or intensity of a verb, adjective, or even another adverb. It shows how much, or in what degree or to what extent.

Examples: almost, fully, too, enough, partly, rather, quite, no better.

  • Can I come to the movies too?
  • You are partly right.
  • These mangoes are almost ripe.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY:

Adverb of frequency explain how often the verb occurs. They are often placed directly before the main verb of a sentence.

Example: never, always, rarely, sometimes, normally, usually, again.

  • I rarely eat fast food these days.
  • Tom usually takes his dog for a walk before breakfast.
  • They always go to the same restaurant every Friday.

Forms of adverbs:

Some adverbs are the same in form as the corresponding Adjectives; that is, some words are used sometimes as Adjectives, sometimes as Adverbs. Example:

ADJECTIVESADVERBS
He spoke in a loud voice.Don’t talk so loud.
He went to the back entrance.Go back.
This is a hard sum.He works hard all day.
Are you an early riser?We started early.

So, as in the sentences we can see how a word is used that we can tell what part of speech it is.

Some adverbs usually have two forms, the form ending in ly and the form which is the same as the Adjective; as,

  • He sings very loud.
  • He sings very loudly.

Sometimes, however, the two forms of the adverb have different meanings as,

  • Rama works hard (=diligently)
  • I am pretty (=fairly) sure of the fact.

There are some adverbs which are used as nouns after prepositions as,

  • He lives far from here (=this place)
  • By then (=that time) the police arrived on the scene.
  • The rain comes from above.

Some nouns expressing adverbial relations of time, place, distance, weight, measurement, value, degree, or the like, are often used as adverbs. Thus-

  • The siege lasted a week.
  • He went home.
  • The watch is worth a thousand rupees.

Comparison of Adverbs:

Some Adverbs, like Adjectives have three degree of comparison. Such adverbs are generally compared like Adjectives.

If the Adverb is of one syllable, we form the Comparative by ending er, and the superlative by adding est, to the positive.

Example: Fast, Faster, Fastest

                Hard, Harder, Hardest

                Long, Longer, Longest

Let’s see them in sentences:

  • Rama ran Fast.              (Positive)
  • Arjun ran Faster.          (Comparative)
  • Hari ran Fastest of all.  (Superlative)

Adverbs ending in ly form the Comparative by adding more and the Superlative by adding most.

Example: Swiftly, more swiftly, most swiftly

                  Skilfully, more skilfully, most skilfully

Example:

  • Abdul played skilfully.         (Positive)
  • Karim played more skilfully than Abdul.  (Comparative)
  • Of all the eleven Ahmed played most skilfully.  (Superlative)

FORMATION OF ADVERBS:

Usually the formation of adverb is seen in one of the kinds of adverb and i.e. Adverb of manner are mostly formed from adjectives by adding ‘ly’ (like, a corruption of like) such as,

Clever, cleverly; wise, wisely; kind, kindly; beautiful, beautifully.

Example: Akbar was a wise king.

He ruled wisely for many years.

Some adverbs are made up of a noun and a qualifying Adjective; such as, Sometimes, meantime, yesterday, midway.

Some of the adverbs are compounds of on (weakened to a) and a noun; such as, Afoot (=on foot), abed, asleep, ahead.

Similarly, there are other adverbs which are also compounds of some preposition and a noun; such as,

Betimes, besides, to-morrow, to-day.

In adverbs, two adverbs sometimes go together, and are joined by the conjunction ‘and’ such as, Again and again, Far and near, Now and again, Over and over, thus and thus, to and fro etc.

For example: I warned him again and again.

                         He reads all the novel of Scott over and over.

                         He walked to and fro, meditating.

let’s us learn some basic points of the POSITION OF ADVERBS.

Adverbs of manners, which answer the question ‘How’? e.g. well, fast, quickly, carefully, calmly, are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one. Such as,

It is raining heavily.

She speaks English well.

While in, Adverb of frequency, which answer the question ‘how often’? like always, never, often, rarely, usually, generally and certain other adverbs like almost, already, hardly, nearly, just, quite are normally put between the subject and the verb, and this is used if the verb contain only one word, if there is more than one word in the verb, they are put after the first  word.

For example: His wife never cooks.

                        We usually have breakfast at eight.

                         I quite agree with you.

There are certain adverbs or adverb phrases of place like here, there, everywhere, on the wall and of time like now, then, yet, today, next Sunday are also usually placed after the verb or after the object it there is one. Such as,

  • He will come here.
  • I looked everywhere.
  • Hang the picture there.
  • They are to be married next week.

As, now we are aware of the full main topics of adverbs, let us have a look to some of the basic rules of adverb which will help us in achieving good marks in the exams.

Rule no 1: Adverb should be placed in a sentence as to make it quite clear which word or words they are intended to modify. Hence, Adverb should come, if possible, next to the word or words they modify.

For example: He had got almost to the top when the rope broke.

Rule no 2: Much’ is used before past participles and Adjectives or Adverbs of comparative degree. ‘Very’ is used before the present participles and Adjectives and Adverbs of positive degree.

  • The news is very surprising.
  • I was much surprised at hearing the news.

Note: ‘Very’ is used with positive degree while ‘Much’ is used with comparative degree.

Rule no 3: The adverb ‘too’ means “more than enough” and should not be used instead of very or much. Let’s have a look to the following sentences where too is used correctly:

  • The news is too good to be true.
  • The work is too much for any man to do single-handed.

Rule no 4: It is a very general rule, ‘only’ should be placed immediately before the words it is intended to modify: as,

  • I worked only two sums.
  • Only Balu succeeded in scoring a century.

In spoken English, however, it is usually put before the verb. The required meaning is obtained by stressing the word which the only modifies; example:

  • He only worked two sums.

Rule no 5: ‘of course’ is often loosely used for certainly, undoubtedly, strictly speaking, of course should be used to denote a natural or an inevitable consequence. Example:

  • Does she sing well? Certainly (not of course) she does.

Rule no 6: When a verb consists of an auxiliary and a main verb, the adverb which qualifies is placed between the main and the auxiliary verb. Example:

  • I have often told him not to come late.

Rule no 7: The adverb ‘enough’ is placed after the word which it modifies; as,

  • Is the box big enough?
  • He spoke loud enough to be heard.

Rule no 8 ‘So’ as an adverb of degree must not be used without a correlative. Example:

  • He is so weak that he cannot walk.
  • It was so sweet like candy.

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